human trafficking in thailand statistics 2018

Although the government continued to increase labor inspections in high-risk industries, inspections resulted in disproportionately few identified victims and criminal investigations. The main piece of legislation in Thailand relating to human trafficking is the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act, B.E. The 610 sex and labor trafficking victims whom the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) reported assisting in government and NGO shelters (401 in 2018), included 134 Thai and 476 foreign victims, and 170 victims of sex trafficking and 440 victims of labor trafficking. Despite reports of continued forced labor in Thailand, the government reported investigating fewer cases; authorities investigated 47 forced labor cases in 2017 (83 in 2016) and 16 in January through March 2018. In February 2017 the government called all Thai fishing vessels operating outside Thai waters back to port where they were put under close monitoring; the government had not authorized these vessels to continue fishing by the end of the reporting period. Authorities assisted in repatriating 147 foreign victims exploited in Thailand, including 36 Rohingya, and facilitated the return of 45 Thais exploited abroad by providing funding for travel expenses, legal assistance, job placement, and other reintegration services. Documentary First. Home Office, National Referral Mechanism Statistics: UK, End of Year Summary, 2019. HUMAN TRAFFICKING. Law enforcement officials cooperated with foreign counterparts to investigate Thai traffickers and victims abroad, and foreign nationals involved in trafficking in Thailand. In addition, NGOs and international organizations widely reported the government did not adequately enforce the application of minimum wages in sectors with a minimum wage and lacked legislation to require minimum wages in other sectors, especially in those sectors with high employment of migrant workers. Human Trafficking, 2018 1 . Government agencies participating in multidisciplinary teams who deployed to screen for indications of trafficking among vulnerable populations used a standard questionnaire to guide interviews with potential victims. It remains largely a hidden crime, since victims are reluctant to seek help for fear of intimidation and reprisals. The government operated specialized anti-trafficking divisions within the Bangkok Criminal Court, office of the attorney general (OAG), and the RTP. Protecting states’ security against human trafficking is also about helping them fight other associated crimes, including smuggling, prostitution, organ trafficking, and money laundering. [88] Thailand has also entered into regional agreements against human trafficking, including The Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Trafficking. Authorities were more likely to send boy victims to juvenile detention facilities than to centers offering victim services. UK trafficking statistics. Then, the Japanese occupation during … In 2017, the government provided more than 10.2 million baht ($314,110) to victims and witnesses through various government funds, compared to 9.2 million baht ($280,980) in 2016. Ambassador to Thailand Glyn T. Davies. The government provided 4.3 million baht ($130,670) for witness protection services for 52 witnesses in trafficking cases in 2017, compared to 2.9 million baht ($88,960) for 254 witnesses in 2016. Children in orphanages are vulnerable to exploitation, including trafficking. Sources below. Traffickers have reportedly also preyed on ethnic minorities affected by internal conflicts in Myanmar. Migrant workers, especially those who are undocumented, are fearful of reporting trafficking crimes and cooperating with authorities due to lack of awareness of their rights and minimal protections both in Thailand and in countries of origin and a general fear of authority that may stem from their country of origin or their experience in Thailand. Victims are often trafficked into Thailand through established migration routes from neighbouring states with significantly lower levels of socio-economic development. The 610 sex and labor trafficking victims whom the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) reported assisting in government and NGO shelters (401 in 2018), included 134 Thai and 476 foreign victims, and 170 victims of sex trafficking and 440 victims of labor trafficking. Human trafficking is widespread in South-East Asia and in rural areas of Laos young women and girls are at a high risk of being trapped in the Thai sex trade. Impact of Livelihood Recovery Initiatives on Reducing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking and Illegal Recruitment: Lessons from Typhoon Haiyan. TATIP included teams of first responders dedicated to screening potential victims, gathering evidence, conducting operations, interrogating subjects, and analyzing digital evidence. 46:35. In 2017, 101 migrant worker recruitment agencies were licensed and the government inspected 97 agencies; the government prosecuted one agency in violation of the decree and imposed a fine of 20,000 baht ($610). Some parents or brokers force children from Thailand, Cambodia and Burma to sell flowers, beg, or work in domestic service in urban areas. Finally, victims of trafficking receive inadequate protection and assistance. The statistics contained on this website are based on aggregated information learned through signals -- phone calls, texts, online chats, emails, and online tip reports -- received by the Trafficking Hotline. In June 2017, the government issued a royal ordinance concerning management of foreign worker employment, which required additional registration requirements for migrant workers and their employers, and strengthened penalties for employers of undocumented workers. However, the government increased efforts to address official complicity. The second most common form is forced labor (18 percent). The rise in child trafficking in the region is linked to the alarming increase in online child pornography, including live streaming of sexual abuse of children. More than 85 percent of victims were trafficked from within the region, according to the In 2017, the government initiated investigations of 26 officials (10 in 2016), initiated prosecution of seven, and convicted 12 officials complicit in trafficking crimes (three convictions in 2016). The fight against human trafficking requires better national criminal justice systems to effectively enforce anti-trafficking laws, and these efforts must be part of a broader, multitrack approach that addresses the socioeconomic and political dynamics of trafficking. NGOs reported concerns over the lack of appropriate options for foreign children whose families were complicit in their trafficking or whose identities could not be established. Snapshot of Thailand’s Key Efforts to Combat Human Trafficking and Forced Labor (As of August 2014) TIP 2013 country report The government reported investigating significantly fewer cases of labor trafficking in the fishing industry in 2017; it investigated seven cases in 2017 (43 in 2016). Snapshot of Thailand’s Key Efforts to Combat Human Trafficking and Forced Labor (As of August 2014) TIP 2013 country report These include the 2008 Anti Trafficking in Persons Act, [87] the 1997 Anti Trafficking Act,. The U.S. National Human Trafficking Hotline provides survivors of human trafficking with vital support and options to get help and stay safe. The plight of thousands of migrants stranded on boats in the Andaman Sea has drawn global attention to a sinister trade in people, which has thrived in south east Asia. The government continued to allow more adult trafficking victims the ability to travel, work, and reside outside shelters as provided by Thailand's anti-trafficking law. Geneva: International Organization for Migration and International Labour Organization. 2015. Jonathan Head has spent six months investigating the trafficking of humans in Thailand. Thailand’s Trafficking in Persons 2014 Country Report. Corruption and official complicity in trafficking crimes continued to impede anti-trafficking efforts, and the government sometimes utilized administrative punishments against suspected complicit officials, such as suspensions or transfers to new positions, rather than subjecting them to criminal prosecutions. The number of victims soared from 622 in 2018, while the previous high was 982 in 2015, the government data showed. Others were in the recovery period, chose not to work, were too young to work, or were receiving educational training in shelters. Thailand's commercial sex industry remains vast, increasing vulnerabilities for sex trafficking. The country’s Karen, Shan, Akha, and Lahu women are trafficked for sexual exploitation in Thailand, while Kachin women are sold as brides in China. MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY is associate professor and head of the Centre for Non-Traditional Security at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. The government reported investigating 302 trafficking cases (333 in 2016), initiating prosecutions against 638 suspected traffickers (493 in 2016), and convicting 466 traffickers (366 in 2016) in 2017. Tesfay, Netsanet. Prostitution flourished especially after the abolishment of slavery in 1905 as former slave wives under the feudal system found themselves alone and without financial support. Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage. The focus on criminalization and prosecution may have increased awareness, but more should be done to prevent trafficking through effective law enforcement and efforts to educate vulnerable groups about its dangers. However, the government did not report whether any of these inspections resulted in the identification of trafficking victims, and NGO observers asserted both at-port and at-sea inspections conducted by multidisciplinary teams of the CCCIF were conducted too quickly, in front of ship captains or in open settings, with inconsistent methods in different ports, or by interpretors without the presence of labor inspectors; and in some cases, inspections consisted only of a review of documents or inspectors did not board vessels or speak to crewmembers. Two-thirds of its victims, or 25 million people, are in East Asia and the Pacific, according to the Walk Free Foundation’s Global Slavery Index 2016 (pdf). Data were collected on 43 human-trafficking prevention education programs for youths across the state. Victims of child trafficking can be used and abused over and over; A $32 billion-a-year industry, human trafficking is on the rise and is in all 50 states (U.S. Government) Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP), Public Sector Debt Statistics Online Centralized Database, Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2016 (pdf), Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage. Alarming trends in human trafficking in East Asia and the Pacific have raised the urgency of dealing with the menace. MOL conducted inspections onboard 644 vessels in 2017 and found 34 violations of the law (15 in 2016); three cases were prosecuted as a result. Of the 10 officials initially investigated in 2016, four remained under investigation, the office of the public sector anti-corruption commission referred three for prosecution, and the government chose not to pursue charges against three. About 60% of those rescued last … Following the completion of the horizontal evaluation of the National Action Plan, in Budget 2018, the Government of Canada announced $14.51 million over five years, beginning in 2018-2019, and $2.89 million per year ongoing, to establish a National Human Trafficking Hotline. According to some estimates, human trafficking is now one of the world’s most lucrative organized crimes, generating more than $150 billion a year. A common critique of anti-trafficking regimes is that most efforts have focused on criminalizing and prosecuting traffickers, as opposed to preventing the crime and protecting its victims. Sex Slaves THAILAND - Human Trafficking of 21st Century (Extraordinary Documentary) Yavuztuyluoglu. In addition to personal safety and security, victims need access to legal protection, health care, and temporary shelter, as well as assistance with repatriation and integration. Nepal is a major source of human trafficking into India, and the victims are sold into forced labor and sex slavery in cities throughout India for up to Rs. Thailand figures prominently in human traffickers' maps as a preferred destination in Southeast Asia, government data shows. Drugs 3. They also arise from nonmilitary dangers such as climate change, natural disasters, infectious diseases, and transnational crimes. 46:39. A government decree required migrant worker recruitment agencies to apply for a license and pay a deposit fee applied toward a foreign worker employment fund; unregistered agencies were liable to three years imprisonment and fines up to 60,000 baht ($1,840). The Asia-Pacific region is the world’s most lucrative when it comes to forced labor (see chart). These options may include connecting callers with emergency shelter, transportation, trauma counselors, local law enforcement, or a range of other services and support. The government completed a manual outlining standard operating procedures (SOPs) for trafficking investigations and initiated a pilot in one region in early 2018 to test the procedures; the pilot was ongoing at the end of the reporting period. Government efforts to more quickly complete trafficking prosecutions may have resulted in victims spending less time in shelters. Refworld is the leading source of information necessary for taking quality decisions on refugee status. Officials identified fewer victims of forced labor and investigated fewer forced labor cases compared to the previous reporting period. Thailand has enacted several laws against human trafficking. The OAG required all prosecutors to expedite the submission of trafficking cases to the Courts of Justice. Two international agreements regard human trafficking as a transnational crime: the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, also known as the Palermo Protocol. Members of ethnic minorities, highland persons, and stateless persons in Thailand have experienced instances of abuse indicative of trafficking. Victims, not perpetrators, are often the ones who suffer physical abuse and prosecution for illegal migration. Fifty-one percent of victims in East Asia were women, and children comprised nearly a third, according to the UNODC report. Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU Final report - 2018 Lancaster University. With the transnational nature of human trafficking, both international and regional regimes encourage governments to share information, coordinate policies and efforts to criminalize trafficking offenses, provide mutual legal assistance, protect victims, and prosecute offenders. These two charts show the human trafficking arrest and conviction totals reported by each agency, from 2016 - 2018. MSDHS established a sub-unit under its anti-trafficking division to provide victims legal assistance and file compensation claims. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States. Police utilized DNA testing to determine the relationship between child victims of forced begging and the adults accompanying them, and the government prosecuted parents from neighboring countries who brought their children to Thailand more than once to engage in begging. The Global Slavery Index estimates that there were 136,000 people living in modern slavery in the United Kingdom (UK) on any given day in 2016, reflecting a prevalence rate of 2.1 victims for every thousand people in the country. The government continued to grant citizenship to stateless persons in 2017 and issued a new regulation to provide legal residency to orphaned and non-Thai children born in Thailand. The government identified 35 victims of forced begging in 2017, an increase from 20 identified in 2016. Females are also victims of domestic servitude and other forms of forced labor. Thailand rescued a record 1,807 trafficking victims last year, up from 622 in 2018, the government said this month. Some victims continued to report reluctance to participate in prosecutions due to fear of detention, an inadequate understanding of the Thai legal process, language barriers, and preferring repatriation over lengthy shelter stays and judicial processes. In 2016, the Japanese government identified 50 trafficking victims, of whom 37 were victims of sexual exploitation, nine were forced to work as hostesses, and four were victims of labour exploitation, of whom two were forced to work as manual labourers and one was forced to work i… human trafficking is underreported, underdetected, and thus underprosecuted. The Ministry of Labor (MOL) drafted legislation to more clearly define forced labor in Thai law and create additional protections for victims; in 2018 the government sought input from the public on this draft law. Some of these migrants are kidnapped and held for ransom, which increases their vulnerability to sexual servitude, forced labor, or debt bondage. In early 2018, the Royal Thai Police (RTP) established the Thailand Anti-Trafficking in Persons Task Force (TATIP), composed of law enforcement, social workers, and NGOs, to increase coordination of sex and labor trafficking law enforcement efforts. The IOM notes that climate change and natural disasters are rarely regarded as contributing to human trafficking in global discussions or national-level policy frameworks. To increase efficiency in prosecuting trafficking and illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing cases, in March 2018 the attorney general issued guidelines to prosecutors with descriptions of relevant charges and sentencing recommendations. As recently as 2015, there were reports of separatist groups in southern Thailand recruiting and using children to commit acts of arson or serve as scouts. Security threats are no longer just about military confrontation, territorial disputes, and nuclear proliferation. Human trafficking is a crime in itself but it is rarely the end goal for the perpetrators. The scourge of human trafficking, sometimes called “modern slavery,” affects some 40 million men, women, and children trapped in a horrendous web of forced labor, sexual exploitation, and coerced marriage (ILO and Walk Free Foundation 2017). The Anti-Human Trafficking and anti Child Abuse Center (ATCC) in Pattaya, Thailand, has recently launched The Child Protection and Development Life Skill Center (CPLC) run by Mr. Ja in coordination with a national foundation called Fight Against Child Exploitation (FACE). From the mid-1300s to the mid-1700s prostitutionwas legal and taxed by the Thai government. Many Southeast Asian victims migrate in search of paid jobs but wind up forced to labor in fishing, agriculture, construction, and domestic work, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM). UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. The government issued regulations to increase oversight of NGO-operated shelters and provide access to governmental financial support. Beyond Southeast Asia, the Bali Process was set up in 2002 as a platform for dialogue among countries in the Asia-Pacific. Still, huge challenges remain, notably the serious lack of accurate and reliable information on the scale and scope of trafficking, which makes it difficult to measure the effectiveness of anti-trafficking policies. This document (pdf) complements the international anti-trafficking framework. Following the completion of the horizontal evaluation of the National Action Plan, in Budget 2018, the Government of Canada announced $14.51 million over five years, beginning in 2018-2019, and $2.89 million per year ongoing, to establish a National Human Trafficking Hotline. However, in some cases, first responders, prosecutors, and judges did not sufficiently examine evidence or properly interpret trafficking laws, especially for labor trafficking. The government increased the number of PIPO inspection teams from 64 to 85. Victims, not perpetrators, are often the ones who suffer physical abuse and prosecution for illegal migration. Given the low literacy rate and diversity of languages among at-risk persons, however, this information remained inaccessible to many vulnerable non-Thai speakers. The discovery of mass graves of trafficking victims along the border between Malaysia and Thailand in 2015 is gruesome evidence of such collusion; a Thai general and police officers were among 62 people convicted of human trafficking and other crimes connected with the case, according to news reports. The Palermo Protocol divides the offense into three components: the act of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, and receipt of persons; the means—the use of force and other forms of coercion, such as abduction and deception; and the purpose—for prostitution, forced labor and slavery, and the removal of organs. ANNUAL REPORT. The Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) reported assisting 450 victims in government shelters (561 in 2016), including 360 identified in 2017 and 90 identified in 2016, of which 132 were Thai and 228 were foreign victims. Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves using force, fraud, or coercion to … Through government-to-government formal migration channels, the government facilitated 20,068 Thais to obtain employment abroad in 2017. However, government agencies inconsistently enforced laws related to forced begging, which may have resulted in authorities sending some potential child victims to homeless shelters rather than MSDHS trafficking shelters. Some also reported gaps in Thai policies related to migrant workers that exacerbated exploitation, such as no requirement that employment contracts be written in both Thai and workers' languages, lack of clear guidance to measure work and rest hours for workers aboard fishing vessels, and difficulty for workers to change employers. The government investigated and detained several vessels operating in international waters, leading to the identification of 50 exploited workers, including 35 trafficking victims and, in one case, the arrest of a broker and crew supervisor. After Typhoon Haiyan, one of the strongest tropical storms ever recorded, struck the Philippines in 2013, survivors were reportedly forced to work as domestic servants, beggars, prostitutes, and laborers. The government increased efforts to protect victims but identified significantly fewer trafficking victims, particularly of labor trafficking, than in the previous reporting period. More than 900 victims of human trafficking have been rescued in 2019 – According to official statistics released by the Thai anti-trafficking department, since the beginning of 2019, the police have rescued 974 victims of human trafficking. The law protected victims from prosecution for acts committed as a result of being subjected to trafficking; however, flaws in the government's implementation of victim identification procedures and its efforts to arrest and deport immigration violators increased victims' risk of being re-victimized and treated as criminals. This is not a UNHCR publication. Most of the literature on modern-day slavery focuses on women and children as victims of the sex industry. The government amended the anti-trafficking law in 2015 to provide protection to whistleblowers but did not report whether this new provision had been applied. and Thailand in 2015 is gruesome evidence of such collusion; a Thai general and police officers were among 62 people convicted of human trafficking and other crimes connected with the case, accord - ing to news reports. Human Trafficking, 2018, marks the sixth report from the national Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program’s Human Trafficking data collection. In one prosecution completed in 2017, the government convicted 62 offenders, including 11 government officials, involved in the trafficking of Rohingya migrants; it sentenced convicted officials to prison terms ranging from 14 to 79 years. “The 2018 Trafficking in Person’s report recognizes Thailand’s continuing commitment to combating human trafficking,” stated U.S. In addition, from January through March 2018, it initiated criminal investigations of 20 officials, prosecuted eight, and convicted five. Browse more videos. Human trafficking has surpassed the illegal sale of arms; Trafficking will surpass the illegal sale of drugs in the next few years; Drugs are used once and they are gone. In September 2017, the cabinet approved the Second National Policy Strategies and Measures to Prevent and Suppress Trafficking in Persons, 2017-2021. In one case, the government sentenced a boat captain to four years imprisonment and ordered him to pay 450,000 baht ($13,800) in restitution to the victims. Refworld contains a vast collection of reports relating to situations in countries of origin, policy documents and positions, and documents relating to international and national legal frameworks. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2016 (pdf), published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes (UNODC). Some of those victims are right here in Ohio, and among them are the most innocent members of society — children. [13] Eighty percent of North Koreans who escape into China are women.Nine out of 10 of those women become victims of human trafficking, often for sex.If the women complain, they are deported back to North Korea, where they are thrown into gulags or are executed. Key concepts in a nutshell. Data collection on trafficking 2018 in human beings in the EU. Follow. Some NGOs reported workers faced retaliation if they reported abuse to inspection teams, and asserted potential victims did not to report abuses to avoid long shelter stays which could result in financial or personal hardships. In addition, courts ordered more than 18.4 million baht ($565,640) in restitution from traffickers to 151 victims in 2017, an increase from 1.7 million baht ($50,610) to 15 victims in 2016. There are reports that some brokers and employers continue to confiscate identity documents. December 21, 2018 . Victims were prosecuted for crimes committed as a direct result of being subjected to trafficking, including prostitution and immigration violations. In 2015 to provide testimony charts show the human trafficking arrest and totals! 2017 ; Tesfay 2015 ) Livelihood Recovery Initiatives on Reducing Vulnerability to human trafficking, and other forms forced! 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