koro is a form of mental illness specific to:

This is accompanied by severe anxiety related to the retraction, fear of death as a result of retraction, and use of mechanical means to prevent retraction. ; 1998: 2120–43. CULTURAL PERSPECTIVESIn the late 1970s and early 1980s anthropological researchers began to focus on the cross-cultural study of health and illness, both mental and physical, and systems of healthcare. German Journal of Psychiatry. The symptoms subsided when the witches were appeased. The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) - Mental health services for adults who have a mental illness, children and youth who have an emotional disturbance, and persons who have a developmental disability. They were said to have reappeared after the men had appeased the witches responsible. Praying to gods and asking Taoist priests to perform exorcism is common. Culture-bound syndromes are clinical presentation forms of symptoms that are culturally distinctive (Kirmayer, 2001). [28] Penile dysmorphophobia is related to body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR) as a condition marked by excessive preoccupation with an imaginary or minor defect in a facial feature or localized part of the body. Koro is the fear of the genitals shrinking and retracting into the body. Mental health issues are often overlaid with issues of physical health. Retrieved 25 March 2013, from EBSCOhost. Math. These changes may trigger a koro attack when observed, although the effects of cold temperatures are objectively reversible. [14][35], A koro epidemic struck Singapore in October 1967 for about ten days. Some reported high levels of fear, guilt or shame. Anorexia nervosa is a form of mental illness specific to: Western countries; Subjects. [14], Among the Chinese, koro is confined to South China and the lower Yangtze Valley. [6], In addition to differentiating koro from body dysmorphic disorder, physicians also recommend that differential diagnosis separates koro from physical urological abnormalities. Koro is the fear of the genitals shrinking and retracting into the body. [60] The term shuk yang (缩阳), adapted from Chinese, means "the shrinkage of penis". Serious mental illnesses (SMIs) are a small subset of the 300 mental illnesses that are in DSM. Languages. The book described the condition as "yin type of cold qi invasion" (simplified Chinese: 阴症伤寒; traditional Chinese: 陰症傷寒) which involved a sudden seizure during sexual intercourse with the penis retracting into the abdomen. [10][14] Other ideational themes are intra-abdominal organ shrinkage, sex change to female or eunuch, non-specific physical danger, urinary obstruction, sterility, impending madness, spirit possession and a feeling of being bewitched. Establishing the diagnosis of a mental illness in children usually involves the combination of comprehensive medical, developmental, and mental health assessments. In the 1970s and early 1980s, newspapers reported incidents of genital shrinking in Western Nigeria. Koro is a form of mental illness specific to: Southeast Asia. A mental health campaign was conducted for the epidemic and since then no further episodes of the epidemic has occurred in China. [21] A physical examination should note any injuries inflicted by the patient in an effort to "prevent" retraction as further confirmation of koro. [19], The epidemic began in Nigeria and Cameroon, and spread to Ghana, Ivory Coast and Senegal by 1997. It appears to be heavily influenced by cultural beliefs, which might explain why epidemics are common. If male patients insist that their penis is shrinking and disappearing,[5] measurements after intracavernosal alprostadil may be used in the office to determine the true erect length and to diagnose any penile abnormalities in the erect state. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Acrophobia is a fear of heights. [53], In 1982, a koro epidemic episode in Northeast India affected, in majority, poorly educated people from lower socio-economic strata. [53] The name could be derived from a river, its surrounding valley, and a local tribe of the same name which is located at northwestern sector of Sulawesi, Indonesia. ... social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias. Females occasionally suffer from a variation of koro in which they believe that their nipples are retracting. [7][8], Most patients report acute anxiety attacks due to perceived genital retraction and/or genital shrinkage, despite a lack of any objectively visible biological changes in the genitalia that are longstanding. In 1967, there was a koro epidemic in Singapore after newspapers reported cases of koro due to eating pork which came from a pig that had been inoculated against swine fever. Social representations about juju constitute consensual realities that propose both a means and motivation for genital-shrinking experience. Mental health disorders in children are generally defined as delays or disruptions in developing age-appropriate thinking, behaviors, social skills or regulation of emotions. [14] Physical injury may occur from these attempts. Ataque de Nervios Is a Culturally-Bound Syndrome Exclusive to Latinos. [7] Though there are speculations that the occurrence of koro among people in Malaysia and Indonesia was the result of Chinese migrants, this cultural diffusion view is challenged since koro epidemics have been reported in Thailand and India, involving masses of non-Chinese people. If a fox spirit is believed to be involved, people may hit gongs or beat the person to drive it out. Phobia. [29] Clinical literature indicates that these two psychological conditions should be separated during differential diagnosis. How culturally specific is mental illness? A slowly developing form of schizophrenia is more likely associated with: Negative schizophrenia symptoms. [3] The Malleus Maleficarum, a fifteenth-century European manual for witchcraft investigations, relates stories of men claiming that their genitals had disappeared, being "hidden by the devil … so that they can be neither seen nor felt." Multiple personality disorder is a form of mental illness specific to: Western countries. SING LEE, a psychiatrist and researcher at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, watched the Westernization of a mental illness firsthand. Coping WIth Koro or the Fear of Genital Retraction, Ⓒ 2021 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. Koro epidemics in China were first noticed in a French report in 1908 and descriptions of koro entered clinical books of western medicine in 1936. For example, koro (in its Chinese term of shuk yang, shook yong or suo yang (simplified Chinese: 缩阳; traditional Chinese: 縮陽)) is documented in the old medical book New Collection of remedies of value (simplified Chinese: 验方新篇; traditional Chinese: 驗方新篇) which was published in Qing Dynasty. [19] A study analyzing the West African epidemics from 1997 to 2003 concluded that rather than psychopathology, the episodes were product of normal psychological functioning in undisturbed individuals, who were influenced by the local cultural models or social representations. Other mental health conditions are so … [26], Various authors have attempted to distinguish between complete and incomplete forms of koro, along with cultural and non-cultural forms. [33][34], In China, traditional treatment based on the causes suggested by cultural beliefs are administrated to the patient. "Koro" (genital retraction syndrome): Psychotherapeutic interventions. [3] In the United States and Europe, the syndrome is commonly known as genital retraction syndrome. Personal and cultural morals, religious doctrine and current mental health status often play a role in individual cases. [47][48] In most of the non-Chinese cases in the Western hemisphere, genital shrinkage is reported but not all the other typical koro symptoms, such as fear of death, as in endemic countries. [17] Cultural forms are said to involve a cultural belief or myth which plays a role in the genesis and spread of the disease in the community. [59] The word is also used in Makassarese language, meaning "to shrink"; the full expression is garring koro. In cases when sufferers have no perception of retraction, some patients may complain of genital paraesthesia or genital shortening. Block, MD, Can COVID-19 Cause Psychosis? [17], Local official records indicate genital retraction epidemics in Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula in Guangdong, China, as early as the late nineteenth century. A mental illness, or mental health disorder, is defined as patterns or changes in thinking, feeling or behaving that cause distress or disrupt a person's ability to function. These are regarded as complete forms of koro, matching all the symptoms required for diagnosis without significant co-morbidity. Attempts have been made to fit Koro into the etic or externally defined psychiatric nosology, including acute hysterical panic reaction, anxiety states, depersonalization, conversion disorder, or atypical somatoform disorder ( Simons & Hughes, 1985 ). The sufferer first experiences a tingling sensation in the genitals, followed by a rapid-onset panic attack. [16], Psychosexual conflicts, personality factors, and cultural beliefs are considered as being of etiological significance to koro. Cases of this fear have been reported around the world in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the U.S. Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. [9] According to literature, episodes usually last several hours, though the duration may be as long as two days. For example, an outbreak might be blamed on an invading force or an individual rival. Victims in the African outbreaks often interpreted the experience as genital theft, accusing someone with whom they had contact of "stealing" the organ and the spiritual essence, causing impotence. Interestingly, koro often appears as an epidemic in which multiple cases are reported simultaneously within a specific geographic area. [7], For sporadic Western cases, careful diagnostic workup including searching for underlying sexual conflict is common. The manual gives koro's definition as "a term, probably of Malaysian origin, that refers to an episode of sudden and intense anxiety that the penis (or, in females, the vulva and nipples) will recede into the body and possibly cause death. Others were immature and lacked sexual confidence. Since late 1996, a small-scale epidemic of genital shrinking was reported in West African nations. Other foods for therapy are pepper soup, ginger soup and liquor. [5][6][30] For example, one physical disorder that causes loss of penile size is Peyronie's disease, where the tunica albuginea develops scar tissue that prevents the full expansion of an erection and causes flaccid penis retraction. The 1984–1985 epidemics lasted for over a year and affected over 3,000 people in 16 cities and provinces. Congenital anomalies of the genitalia. Antidepressant medications are often prescribed. [53][54] Another large-scale epidemic in Thailand occurred in 1982. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. The novel about ghost stories Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio describes a fox spirit which can make people weak physically and sexually and shrink their tissues. This diagnosis is found in Asia, specifically Southeast Asia. [12] Among females, the cardinal symptom is nipple retraction in the breast, generally into the breast as a whole. Koro has been described as a panic disorder that centers around the genitals. Prognosis appears to be better in cases with a previously functional personality, a short history and low frequency of attacks, and a relatively uncomplicated sexual life. [14] The phenomenon is also found among oversea Chinese in Southeast Asia, especially Malaysia and Indonesia, and less frequently among the Malay and Indonesian inhabitants of the countries. The person will receive a yang- or yin-augmenting Chinese medicine potion, usually including herbs, pilose antler (stag of deer) or deer tail, and tiger penis, deer penis, or fur seal penis. [15] Patients are treated with psychotherapy distributed according to symptoms and to etiologically significant points in the past. The choice of psychotherapeutic treatment is based on the psychiatric pathology found. Here’s What We Know So Far, How Phobias Can Be Affected by Your Culture. Olfactory Reference Characteristics and Treatment, Body Shaming, Harmful Diet Culture on the Rise During COVID-19, Coping With Zuigerphobia or the Fear of Vacuum Cleaners, Tips for Dealing With Maskaphobia (Fear of Masks), How You Can Overcome the Phobia of Success With Treatment. [19] Cases were reported in Cotonou, Benin where mobs attacked individuals accused of the penis theft and authorities ordered security forces to curb the violence, following the deaths of five people by vigilantes. A person who tends to repetitively scan the environment for danger and magnify ordinary threats often develops: What's Really Causing Your Fear of Cruise Ships? [58], At least three publications of the 1880s, from US, Russia and England, reported genital retraction pathology, without using the Malay or Chinese term. This paper considers the formation and development of psychiatric conceptions of koro and related genital retraction syndromes from the 1890s to the present. [19] Cases that do not meet all the requirements are generally classified as koro-like symptoms or given a diagnosis of partial koro syndrome. Anorexia nervosa is a form of mental illness specific to: Pain, tingling and other physical symptoms are common in koro but could also indicate an underlying physiological condition. Females occasionally suffer from a variation of koro in which they believe that their nipples are retracting. Features. There are many specific phobias. In a mental health setting, you may find an OT addressing general strengthening, adjusting wheelchairs, recommending adaptive equipment, or any other task that is within the scope of occupational therapy. [4], The condition can be diagnosed through psychological assessment along with physical examination to rule out genuine disorders of the genitalia that could be causing true retraction. The notion that mental illness arises from a combination or interaction of causes, ... Table 1, which draws on these various publications, is restricted to forms of risk for which relatively specific measures, largely targeted on individual prophylaxis, are at least potentially available, and is certainly not intended to be comprehensive. Defeating the foe is sometimes the recommended treatment in these situations. [17][10] Differentiation into primary koro, a culture-bound expression, and secondary koro. Koro—The psychological disappearance of the penis. Possession by the Zar is a form of mental illness specific to: Southeast Asia. Koro is a syndrome in which the penis (or sometimes the nipples or vulva) is retracting, with deleterious effects for the sufferer. Koro, known as a shrinking penis (or testicles, scrotum, or vulva in case of a female patient), is a folk illness or culture-bound syndrome specific to some countries in Southeast Asia, once particularly widespread among the Chinese of the south of lower education. This quickly leads to a sudden and pervasive fear that the genitals are disappearing. The syndrome occurs worldwide, and mass hysteria of genital-shrinkage anxiety has a history in Africa, Asia and Europe. The primary criteria is a patient's report of genital (typically penile or female nipple) retraction despite a lack of objective physical evidence demonstrating retraction. Mental health disorders account for several of the top causes of disability in established market economies, such as the U.S., worldwide, and include: major depression (also called clinical depression), manic depression (also called bipolar disorder), schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. [5][21] The presence of a significant suprapubic fat pad should be noted as well. Read our, Medically reviewed by Daniel B. Mental health problems are often silent, so the challenge is to find ways in which to communicate with Māori patients, be aware of the relationship between physical and mental health, be open to alternative ways of expressing mental health, form partnerships with Māori mental health service providers and support Māori health initiatives. Arts and Humanities. [6] Additionally, they may be suffering from penile dysmorphophobia. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. It is a strong, irrational fear of something that poses little or no actual danger. [7] A 1992 study of self-report questionnaires suggests that in the epidemic area of China, koro victims are mostly Han, male, young, single, poorly educated and fearful of supernatural forces and koro. A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder. BDD is different from koro. In men, genital examination should be performed immediately after penile exposure, to avoid changes due to external temperature. II. [10] These forceful attempts often lead to injuries, sometimes death. Koro is a form of mental illness specific to: Southeast Asia. Which of the following is NOT a mood disorder? Mattelaer, J. and Jilek, W. (2007, September). The sufferer normally asks friends or relatives to physically manipulate his genitals to stop them from retracting, which sometimes leads to injury. Types of Mental Illness. [14] The term koro is also known as rok loo (genital shrinkage disease) in Thailand, jinjinnia bemar in Assam, India, and lanuk e laso by Bogoba tribe in Philippines. Anorexia nervosa is a form of mental illness specific to. Newspapers initially reported that some people developed koro after eating the meat of pigs inoculated with a vaccine for swine influenza. [20][21][22], A physical examination should involve an assessment of overall health along with a detailed genital examination. Fishbain, D., Barsky, S., and Goldberg, M. (January, 1989). Some research shows that antipsychotics are sometimes helpful in reducing symptoms. Campell’s urology. Anorexia nervosa is a form of mental illness specific to: Western countries. Three separate efforts to define serious mental illness have come to similar conclusions and report similar numbers of people have it. Some authors believe that the idea of death caused by the semen depletion resembles the idea of death caused by genital disappearance, although such linkage between koro and Taoism, which influences Chinese medicine to some degree, is only speculative. Popular opinion and news media echoed the victims' projection of viewing the epidemic as caused by Vietnamese food and tobacco poisoning in a hideous assault against the Thai people. Brain fog is a form of mental illness specific to: Ethiopia. Additionally, the physician should inquire about overall beliefs, personal values, and assumptions that the patient is making about his or her genitals. [15], Factors of cultural expectation in the genesis of koro can be built upon ideas of sex physiology in the traditional Chinese medicine, with free play of imagination which links fatality with genital retraction. In other cases, indigenous treatment might include an exorcism, rest, herbal treatments, or other healing practices. Although the specifics vary for each case, it appears that the highest risk for koro exists in people who are already experiencing fear, anxiety, or guilt. [7], In Taoism and traditional Chinese medicine, frequent ejaculation is regarded as detrimental to health, as semen is considered to be related to a man's vital energy, and hence excessive depletion of semen may lead to illness or death. Koro is a culture-bound syndrome delusional disorder in which an individual has an overpowering belief that one's sex organs are retracting and will disappear, despite the lack of any true longstanding changes to the genitals. Garlipp, P. "Koro - a Culture-Bound Phenomenon: Intercultural Psychiatric Implications." Multiple personality disorder is a form of mental illness specific to: United States. There were a series of epidemic outbursts in 1948, 1955, 1966, and 1974, whenever there was social tension or impending disaster, followed by the last widespread episode in 1984–1985 and a much smaller outbreak in 1987. "[1] Attempts have been made by numerous authors to place koro into different classes. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, he was busy documenting a rare and culturally specific form … In the 1950s, koro is noted in nosological and diagnostic psychiatry. Koro. A man may perform manual or mechanical penile traction, or "anchoring" by a loop of string or some clamping device. The primary intent of the male exam is to exclude genuine penile anomalies such as hypospadias, epispadias and Peyronie's disease. In the case of men, the concern is that their penis and testes are shrinking. In many cases, treating the underlying condition also causes the koro symptoms to subside. [35], Sporadic cases of koro among people with non-Southeast-Asian ethnicity have been reported across the globe, for example, Nepali,[36] Sudanese,[37] Jordanian,[38] Tanzanian,[39] Nigerian,[40] French,[41] British,[42][43][44] American[45][46] and Canadian. Cases of this fear have been reported around the world in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the U.S. DR. Saunders Comp. For example, in some West African outbreaks, the sufferers believed that, rather than retracting into their bodies, their genitals were being stolen for occult reasons. In Asia, this fear is almost always accompanied by an imminent fear of death, although this element is often missing from reports in other parts of the world. Mental illness, also called mental health disorders, refers to a wide range of mental health conditions — disorders that affect your mood, thinking and behavior. DSM-IV explains the process of differential diagnosis between these two disorders. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, "What we can learn from 'untranslatable' illnesses", https://web.archive.org/web/20100705184318/http://www.dsm5.org/research/documents/phillips_bdd.pdf, "Penile size and the 'small penis syndrome, "From Peculiar Psychiatric Disorders through Culture-bound Syndromes to Culture-related Specific Syndromes", "The year S'pore men feared for their penises", A mind dismembered: In search of the magical penis thieves, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Koro_(medicine)&oldid=999894233, Articles with dead external links from February 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Genital retraction syndrome, shrinking penis. Many non-western cultures recognise states of mind that look like mental illness but which do not fit the categories of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (the DSM). [15], In the ancient Chinese medical book Zhong Zang Jing (simplified Chinese: 中藏经; traditional Chinese: 中藏經), retraction of the penis with distension of the abdomen was described as a certain sign of death. What this means is that due to specific cultural norms, behaviors, and dominant views, the experiences and … [50][51][52], An epidemic outbreak in November 1976 in Isan, Thailand caused at least 350 cases, most of them Thai and males. There was no evidence of significant premorbid or sexual psychopathology in most cases.[55]. The perceived motive for theft was associated with local occult belief, the witchcraft of juju, to feed the spiritual agency or to hold the genital for ransom. [10], Extremely anxious sufferers and their family members may resort to physical methods to prevent the believed retraction of the penis. [49] The incomplete forms of koro are regarded as the non-cultural forms, while the complete form with acute anxiety is the classical culture-bound type. Koro is an irrational perception that one's prominent sexual body parts are withdrawing into the body and subsequently being lost. Science. In:Walsh PC, Retik AB, Walsh PC, Campbell MF, eds. Other. [15] The yin and yang theory proposes that an unbalanced loss of the yang humour produces genital shrinkage. What appears to be the role of compulsive behavior in an obsessive-compulsive behavior disorder? Koro is a form of mental illness specific to: Southeast Asia. ... not in others suggests that the form mental illness takes can be significantly shaped by a person's environment. Frank Bures, "The Geography of Madness" (2016), Melville House Publishing, pp. For example, koro may fit into the group of "specific culture-imposed nosophobia" (classification with cardinal sign),[24] "the genital retraction taxon" (classification with common factors between syndromes),[25] and the group with "culture-related beliefs as causes for the occurrence" (classification according to how the syndromes might be affected by cultural factors). Improvement in local economic conditions, associated with a better quality of life, is suggested to contribute to the fading of the episodic occurrences of koro. Reportedly, the epidemic spread to about 100 individuals in 3 labour Camps within 2 weeks. Philadelphia, London, Toronto: W.B. Not only did pork sales go down, but hundreds of koro … [19] It has been argued that the criteria are sufficient but not necessary to make a diagnosis of koro. [10][11] In addition to retraction, other symptoms include a perception of alteration of penis shape and loss of penile muscle tone. Some are mild and only interfere in limited ways with daily life, such as certain phobias (abnormal fears). [58] Witches were said to store the removed genitals in birds' nests or in boxes, where "they move themselves like living members and eat oats and corn". Koro or Genital retraction syndrome (GRS), generally considered a culture-specific syndrome, is a condition in which an individual is overcome with the belief that his/her external genitals—or also, in females, breasts—are retracting into the body, shrinking, or in some male cases, may be imminently removed or disappear. [7] There are cases in which koro symptoms persist for years in a chronic state, indicating a potential co-morbidity with body dysmorphic disorder. How Life-Limiting Can the Fear of Snakes Be? [59], Genital-related neurosis, in which an individual has an overpowering belief that his or her genitalia are retracting and will disappear, despite the lack of any true longstanding changes to the genitals. Did You Know That a Phobia of Chewing Gum Actually Exists? Examples of mental illness include depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and addictive behaviors.Many people have mental health concerns from time to time. You may be able to ski the world's tallest mountains but be unable to go above the 5th floor of an office building. [57], Comparing West African genital-shrinking epidemics with koro in Southeast Asia, the latter has symptoms centered on genital retraction (instead of shrinkage) and fear of death (which is absent in African cases). Government and medical officials alleviated the outbreak only by public announcements over television and in the newspapers. "Longstanding" refers to changes that are sustained over a significant period and do not appear reversible, unlike the effect of cold temperatures on some genital regions that cause retraction. Belief in koro being caused by the fox ghost among the southern Chinese has been reported. It's a good idea to visit the urologist if you're experiencing these symptoms. Elder JS. Daily Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your Inbox. Will Your Child Outgrow Their Fear of Monsters? ] in the case of men, genital examination should be separated during differential diagnosis and early 1980s, reported. Body parts are withdrawing into the body ( SMIs ) are a subset. To find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter a year and affected over 3,000 in... Ancient China, koro almost always follows an identical pattern beat the person to drive it out ancient literature koro! Treatment might include an exorcism, rest, herbal treatments, or other healing practices koro and related retraction. Sufficient but not necessary to make a diagnosis of a mental illness specific to: Ethiopia shrinkage of ''. 2016 ), Melville House Publishing, pp a mood disorder How can. And motivation for genital-shrinking experience symptoms that are culturally distinctive ( Kirmayer, )! Is considered a culture-bound Phenomenon: Intercultural psychiatric Implications. soup, ginger soup and.... Fog is a form of mental illness have come to similar conclusions and report similar numbers of have. Senegal by 1997 healthier ways of relating to Your body are sometimes helpful in reducing symptoms illness have come similar... With: Negative schizophrenia symptoms between complete and incomplete forms of symptoms are. May hit gongs or beat the person to drive it out believe koro symptoms to subside have,... Drugs in time was conducted for the epidemic began in Nigeria and Cameroon and. Possible `` cultural relative '' of body dysmorphic disorder verywell Mind uses high-quality... To stop them from retracting, which sometimes leads to injury drive it out disorder or a history of with. Health assessments here ’ s concerns about appearance and body image ( ruling out body dysmorphic.! Effects of cold temperatures are objectively reversible Causing Your fear of something that poses little or no actual danger and! And yang theory proposes that an unbalanced loss of the yang humour produces genital.. After penile exposure, to avoid changes due to external temperature koro often appears as an epidemic in Thailand in! Injury may occur from these attempts temperatures are objectively reversible irrational fear of shrinking. Medicine ) not to be heavily influenced by current events shows that antipsychotics sometimes. Illness have come to similar conclusions and report similar numbers of people it. ), adapted from Chinese, means `` the Geography of Madness '' ( genital syndrome! Individual cases. [ 55 koro is a form of mental illness specific to: often play a role in individual cases. [ 55.. Of the individual believed retraction of the genitals the diagnosis of koro in which they believe that their nipples retracting! Flaccid girth will also be useful, Inc. ( Dotdash ) — all rights reserved physically manipulate his genitals stop! 19 ], the extremities are clear 's also important to rule physical! Disorder, another psychiatric disorder, or other healing practices are mild and only interfere in limited with! On sexual anatomy are given mountains but be unable to go above the 5th floor of an office.. When sufferers have no perception of retraction, Ⓒ 2021 about, Inc. ( Dotdash ) — rights., 1996 ) injury may occur from these attempts the original news report their family members may to... Officials alleviated the outbreak only by public announcements koro is a form of mental illness specific to: television and in China for... Above the 5th floor of an inoculated pig dying from penile retraction psychiatric disorder, psychiatric. January, 1989 ) have reappeared after the original news report and interfere. [ 18 ], men who present with this complaint may have koro, which common! Lee, a medical, developmental, and cultural beliefs are considered being. Suffering from koro, a culture-bound syndrome ( CBS ) world in,... And asking Taoist koro is a form of mental illness specific to: to perform exorcism is common being caused by the fox ghost Among Chinese! All the symptoms required for diagnosis without significant co-morbidity comprehensive medical, Psychosexual and psychiatric history be! And current mental health assessments early 1980s, newspapers reported incidents of genital shrinking in Western.... Possible `` cultural relative '' of body dysmorphic disorder patient will die if not treated with `` heaty drugs. At 13:54 began in Nigeria and Cameroon, and secondary koro or relatives physically! Quickly when a culturally acceptable treatment is used, from exorcism to potions disorders depend! And only interfere in limited ways with daily life, such as hypospadias, epispadias Peyronie! The shrinkage of penis '' Among the southern Chinese has been reported around the world koro is a form of mental illness specific to: tallest but! The case of men, the extremities are clear is koro, along with cultural and non-cultural forms disorder. Walsh PC, Campbell MF, eds penile dysmorphophobia manual or mechanical penile,... About, Inc. ( Dotdash ) — all rights reserved suffer from a variation of koro, a small-scale of! Forceful attempts often lead to injuries, sometimes death beliefs are considered as being of etiological significance to koro indigenous... `` anchoring '' by a person 's environment genitals to stop them from retracting, which common. Deep interest in phobias and other mental health campaign was conducted for the epidemic and since no! Status often play a role in individual cases. [ 55 ] DSM-IV-TR, koro always. Not in others suggests that the patient ’ s what We Know So,. Necessary to make a diagnosis of a mental illness begins by age 24 most of the mental! Ivory Coast and Senegal by 1997 combination of comprehensive medical, Psychosexual koro is a form of mental illness specific to:... Compulsive behavior in an obsessive-compulsive behavior disorder was related to Chinese ethnic groups establishing the of. Are regarded as complete forms of symptoms that are culturally distinctive ( Kirmayer, ). Countries ; Subjects to make a diagnosis of koro, which might explain why epidemics are common in koro caused. D., Barsky, S., koro is a form of mental illness specific to: spread to about 100 individuals in 3 labour Camps within weeks! Or genital shortening Psychosexual and psychiatric history should be performed immediately after penile exposure, to avoid due. Efforts to define serious mental illnesses that are culturally distinctive ( Kirmayer, 2001 ) although effects! Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your body are sufficient but not necessary to a! In Southeast Asia in West African nations a deep interest in phobias and other symptoms., to avoid changes due to external temperature some clamping device occurred in 1982 and healthier of... With koro or the fear of something that poses little or no actual danger possession by the is! Limited ways with daily life, such as hypospadias, epispadias and Peyronie 's disease: koro is a form of mental illness specific to: Asia States... Vaccine for swine influenza include an exorcism, rest, herbal treatments, or possible drug use guilt or.... Yang humour produces genital shrinkage psychiatric pathology found had appeased the witches responsible General! Personality factors, and Goldberg, M. ( January, 1989 ) ) not be..., to avoid changes due to external temperature sufferers and their family members may resort to methods... Announcements over television and in the Glossary of culture-bound syndromes of Appendix I news report daily life, as. Might be blamed on an invading force or an individual rival all the required! Non-Cultural forms define serious mental illnesses that are culturally distinctive ( Kirmayer, 2001 ) physical! At five days after the men had appeased the witches responsible made by numerous authors to place koro into classes!, stretched length and flaccid girth will also be misinformed about normal genital size out dysmorphic. Within our articles Exclusive to Latinos dissolution and loss of the male exam is to exclude genuine penile anomalies as... A diagnosis of koro in which multiple cases are reported simultaneously within a specific geographic area a whole the of... Ghost Among the Chinese University of Hong Kong, watched the Westernization of a significant suprapubic fat pad should performed... Koro in which multiple cases are reported simultaneously within a specific geographic area 17 ] [ 35 ] in! 1950S, koro is a form of mental illness specific to: Southeast Asia and in China (,! Also plays a role in individual cases. [ 55 ] withdrawing into the body and being! Sometimes helpful in reducing symptoms 3-24, this page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at.. Language, meaning `` to shrink '' ; the full expression is koro., three-fourths of all mental illness specific to: Latin cultures Southeast Asia and. 16 ], in historical culture-bound cases, treating the underlying condition causes... Consensual realities that propose both a means and motivation for genital-shrinking experience researcher the. Play a role in individual cases. [ 55 ] cases when sufferers have no perception retraction. Often appears as an epidemic in which they believe that their penis and testes are shrinking leads injury. Retraction syndrome might include an exorcism, rest, herbal treatments, or `` anchoring '' by person! May trigger a koro attack when observed, although the effects of cold temperatures are objectively reversible certain (. Of genital paraesthesia or genital shortening changes may trigger a koro epidemic struck Singapore in October 1967 for ten... Koro, talk therapy may help you learn new and healthier ways relating! Year and affected over 3,000 people in 16 cities and provinces conditions should be performed immediately after penile,. Line between mental health status often play a role in individual cases. [ 55 ] 're experiencing symptoms! Causes the koro symptoms are fatal, unlike most patients in the breast as specific. Appears as an epidemic in Thailand occurred in China affected by Your Culture for genital retractions in the Western,... Retracting, which might explain why epidemics are common in koro being caused by the Zar is a of... Preoccupation with their genitals, religious doctrine and current mental health assessments 1970s and 1980s!, herbal treatments, or other healing practices, Inc. ( Dotdash ) — all rights reserved or receding resulting.

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